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There is therefore a similarity between the Australian Kobong and the American totem (Grey, 1841). This system reflects the belief of a group of persons regarded as united by a bond of kinship real or fictitious.

The understanding of totemism is owed to Elkin, and Spencer and Gillen, for their work among Australian Aborigines (Lewis, 1969), where the totem appears to identify with the unity and solidarity of the group to which it is attached e.g., Kangaroo Men. Harnessing the Brain: Vision and Shamanism in Upper Palaeolithic Western Europe. Totemism is a practical belief system scattered world-wide with totemism proper practised mainly by hunting peoples, but which “…disappears when agricultural ways take over.” (Cooper, 1995). It prevails all over the north American continent, in Peru, in Guiana, what was the African Gold Coast, in India, the South Seas islands, Australia, Siberia, Egypt and Semitic regions (Lang, 1893). Among Australian Aborigines totemism is a religious system in which the group depends on exclusive and intimate relationship with an animal or plant for its identity, and such a totem provides the group with its name, secondly this name becomes the visible, external sign of a supernatural force that binds the tribe together, and thereby the totem is considered the ancestor of the tribe – a sort of fund of energy out of which all tribe members originate (Lewis, 1969). In this respect it appears that totemism is both a religious and social system with the totem as the sacred object. An essay on the meaning, origin, history and mythology of totemism and totemistic society from prehistoric times to its survivals in modern folklore. No, it is bought with the price of all that man hath.” William Blake “Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please, they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given and transmitted from the past.” Karl Marx “We should all want to help one another: human beings are like that. Totemism and Academic Tradition 2 (a) Mc Lennan, Tylor, Lang 2 (b) Robertson Smith 2 (c) Frazer 2 (d) Spencer and Gillen.

Dedicated to my wife Pamela (1945-1986) and my sons William (1975-2009), and Owen (b 1979), who provided the inspiration and motivation for this opus. We want to live by each other’s happiness, not by each other’s misery.” Charlie Chaplin “Very few academics have any ideas of their own, and their livelihood largely consists in handing on the teachings of the masters of their subject.” Rodney Needham (1969). 2 (e) Boas and the American anti-evolutionists 2 (f) Durkheim. Epilegomena References cited and Sources consulted 1. “Man ascends from the kingdom of necessity to the kingdom of freedom.” Frederick Engels “Women are the mothers of humanity, do not let us ever forget that or underemphasise its importance. 2 (g) Radcliffe-Brown and British Social Anthropology 2 (h) Levi-Strauss 3. Prolegomena The basic feature of primitive society is totemism “…or the system of totem and taboo.” (Reed, 1954). Techno-Economic Determinism and the Work of Marx on Pre-Capitalist Societies. What mothers are to their children, so will man be to man.” M. Totemism in Evolutionary Perspective 3 (a) Women’s Evolution and Mitochondrial Eve 3 (b) Prehistory 4. (b) Anthropomorphism 10 Totemism, Magic, Ritual, and Art 10 (a) Magic 10 (b) Ritual, Symbolism and Rites de Passage 10 (c) Shamanism 10 (d) Hunting and Fertility Magic 10 (e) Shamanism and Prehistoric Art 10 (f) Totemism and Prehistoric Art 11. Totemism has been described as a magico-religious system characteristic of tribal society (Thomson, 1978) that provides a group with an identity that depends upon a certain intimate and exclusive relationship towards a particular animal or plant (Lewis, 1969), and therefore for many is “…both a religious and a social system.” (Stocking, 1995). The tribe or clan therefore, in general, takes its name from the totem (Notes and Queries, 1901). Tribesmen or clansmen thus “…hold themselves to be actually descended from material objects often the most diverse from human form…” (Hartland, 1891) because in the totemic system the mythic ancestor is known as the totem. There is a clear sympathy demonstrated by this mystical bond between nature and humans.